Boxes and crates
Concealed parts (Furniture)
Furniture squares -
Radio, stereo, TV Cabinets
Crushing Strength (Perp.)
Max. Crushing Strength
Work to Maximum Load
Radial Shrinkage (G->OD)
Tangential Shrink. (G->OD)
Volumetric Shrink. (G->OD)
Physical and Environmental Profile
The species is reported to be Vulnerable throughout its natural growth range. Although it may currently exist in large numbers, the long-term security of the species cannot be guaranteed because of very serious adverse environmental effects on its habitat (Source - World Conservation Monitoring Center-1992).
The species is also reported to be either very rare (21 to 100 occurrences) and local throughout its range, or is found locally (even abundantly at some of its locations) in a restricted range. It may also be vulnerable to extinction throughout its range because of other existing but unknown factors (Source - The Nature Conservancy - Rank of relative endangerment based mainly on the number of occurrences of the species worldwide).
The species is reported to be native to southern Brazil, Paraguay, and parts of northern Argentina. It is especially prevalent in the state of Paraná in Brazil.
It is not known at present whether timber from this species is obtainable from sustainably managed or other environmentally responsible sources.
The timber is reported to be abundant in the countries where it grows, but its availability on the North American market is rather limited because of very high shipping costs. High shipping costs added to the price of the timber make Parana pine too expensive in comparison to domestic softwood species used for similar applications. It is rated in the moderate price range compared to other imports, but the price is substantially higher than North American softwoods of similar grade.
Supplies of Parana pine in long lengths, wide boards, and veneer form are also reported to be limited on the European market, with prices, when available, comparable to those of the more expensive softwoods.
The trees are reported to attain heights of 80 to 120 feet (24 to 37 m), with trunk diameters of up to 60 inches (150 cm). Boles are reported to be typically long and clear, and are well suited for timber production.
The sapwood ranges in color from orange-yellow to gray-yellow. It is reported to be similar to ponderosa pine in appearance, but it has a slight grayish or dirty hue.
The heartwood is pale brown in color, with a dark inner core. It is frequently streaked with bright red, or rusty red colors. Other sources describe the heartwood as beige to ochre brown beige in color, with purplish pink veins. Bright red streaks on a natural, soft brown background is reported to make the heartwood very attractive. Many small, tight knots, which are often present, add to the beauty of the wood without affecting its uses or properties.
Grain is typically straight.
The wood has a close, uniform texture, and barely visible growth rings. The texture has been compared to that of White pine (P. strobus).
The wood does not possess any characteristic odor or taste.
Wood surface is reported to be slightly lustrous.
Ease of Drying
Streaks of compression wood is reported to make Parana pine rather difficult to dry. Drying is reported to be slow and may be accompanied by excessive longitudinal shrinkage. Piles should be weighted to minimize warping. A prolonged conditioning period and regular moisture content checks are recommended to control variable drying rates.
Darker colored material is reported to have a slight tendency to split and distort during drying. Streaks of abnormal wood tissue may promote warping and checking.
T3 - D2 (4/4); T3 - D1 (8/4) US
Schedule D (4/4) United Kingdom
Movement in Service
Movement in use is reported to be moderate, but Parana pine has a high tendency to distort in response to changes in moisture content, and is one of a few timbers which shrink in length.
T/R Ratio - 1.75
This indicator is more meaningful if it is used together with actual shrinkage data in the tangential and radial directions (Refer to the Numerical Values window).
The wood is not resistant to decay. It is reported to be vulnerable to attack by some insects, including powder post beetles, but is resistant to attack by other insects, including Anobium borers.
Resistance to Impregnation
The heartwood is reported to be moderately permeable to preservative treatment, but the sapwood is treatable.
Abnormal Wood Tissue
The wood may contain moderate levels of compression wood.
Cutting resistance is reported to be low, but ripped or resawn boards may distort considerably if the material contains compression wood.
The wood exerts slight to moderate blunting effect on cutting tools.
The wood has been found to be easy to plane but it can distort considerably if compression wood is present.
The wood can be moulded or shaped with minimum effort.
Minimum gluing is reported to be required since wider stock is usually available. Gluing properties are, however, good.
The wood nails well without pre-boring, and has excellent nail-holding qualities.
The wood can be sanded easily to yield a smooth, clean surface.
Polishing characteristics are reported to be good.
The material is reported to accept various types of stains well.
Parana pine responds equally well to a variety of finishes.
Painting characteristics are rated as very good.
Steam bending properties are classified as poor.
Response to Hand Tools
The wood responds well to hand tools.
Parana pine is reported to have higher strength and hardness properties than most softwoods. Bending strength of air-dried wood of the species is similar to that of Teak, which is considered to be strong. Strength in compression parallel to grain is in the high range. Other species in this range include Teak, White oak, and Hard maple. It is moderately hard and resistant to wearing and marring. Weight is medium, and it is as dense as Loblolly and Shortleaf pines, and just as strong. Its machining properties compare favorably with most North American softwoods, and it combines the strength and hardness of the Yellow pines with the easy working qualities of the White pines.
Numerical Data Source
USDA. 1987. Wood Handbook - Wood as an Engineering Material. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 72, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.
Lavers, G.M. 1966. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50. Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 607, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin. (Shrinkage data).
Descriptive Data Source
Kloot, N. H. and E. Bolza. 1961. Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia. Technological Paper No. 12. Division of Forest Products, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, Australia.
Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Ltd., Fresno, California.
Jackson, A. and D. Day. 1991. Good Wood Handbook - The Woodworker's Guide to Identifying, Selecting and Using the Right Wood. Betterway Publications, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 607, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.
WCMC. 1992. Conservation Status Listing - Trees and Timbers of the World. World Conservation Monitoring Center-Plants Programme, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, United Kingdom.
Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois, E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Hardwoods -Temperate and Tropical. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.
Chichignoud, M., G. Deon, P. Detienne, B. Parant and P. Vantomme. 1990. Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America. International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Division of CIRAD, 45 bis, Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, Nogent-sur-marne, CEDEX, France.
Arno, J. 1989. Araucaria angustifolia - Parana-pine. In A Guide to Useful Woods of the World, Flynn Jr., J.H., Editor. King Philip Publishing Co., Portland, Maine. 1994. Page 44-45.
British Woodworking Federation. 1995. Which Wood . Published by the British Woodworking Federation, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London.