Plantation Pines

Pinus Caribaea

Common Uses


Bridge construction
Heavy construction
Parquet flooring
Railroad ties
Bedroom suites
Bridge beams
Bridge joists
Building construction
Building materials
Cabin construction
Domestic flooring
Drawer sides
Factory construction
Factory flooring
Foundation posts
Kitchen cabinets
Living-room suites
Mine timbers
Office furniture
Pile-driver cushions
Entertainment Cabinets

Numerical Values

Category Green Dry Unit
Bending Strength
Crushing Strength (Perp.)
Max. Crushing Strength
Impact Strength
Work to Maximum Load
Shearing Strength
Specific Gravity
Density (Air-dry)
Radial Shrinkage (G->OD)
Tangential Shrink. (G->OD)
Volumetric Shrink. (G->OD)
1000 psi

Species Distribution

Fiji [Polynesia]
Sri Lanka

Physical and Environmental Profile

Environmental Profile

A variety of this species found in Cuba, P. caribaea var. caribaea, is currently classified as Rare. Another variety, P. caribaea var. bahamensis, has also been classified as Rare in the Bahamas (Source - World Conservation Monitoring Center - 1992).


The species is reported to naturally occur in the Bahama Islands, western Cuba, Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, but it has been established successfully in Queensland, Western Australia, Fiji, Sri Lanka, South Africa, and elsewhere. In South Africa, the species is reported to be confined to the heavy rainfall areas of the Eastern Transvaal, Zululand, and the Cape Midlands. Until recently, Slash pine (P. elliottii) from southeastern United States is reported to have been known as Pinus caribaea.

Product Sources
It is currently unknown whether some material from this species is available from sustain ably managed, salvaged, recycled, or other environmentally responsible sources.

Tree Data
The tree is reported to attain a height of about 100 feet (30 m), with a trunk diameter of 30 to 40 inches (75 to 100 cm), sometimes larger. It develops boles with a moderate taper, that are about 70 feet (21 m) long.

Sapwood Color
The sapwood is easily distinguishable, and is lighter in color than the heartwood.

Heartwood Color
The color of the heartwood is generally golden brown to red brown. Resin canals are reported to be numerous.

The grain is usually straight.

The texture is described as somewhat coarse.

The wood has medium luster.

The wood imparts a strong resinous odor.

Ease of Drying
The timber is reported to air-season rather slowly, with very little degrade.

Drying Defects
Timber in thicker sizes may end-split, and low-density plantation wood may warp slightly during drying.

Kiln Schedules
T10 - D4S (4/4); T8 - D3S (8/4) US

T/R Ratio - 1.33
This indicator is more meaningful if it is used together with other drying information and actual shrinkage data in the tangential and radial directions. (Refer to the Numerical Values window).

Natural Durability
Performance against attack by decay fungi is reported to be determined by the amount of resin in the wood. Heartwood resistance is rated as generally moderate, and could last from 10 to 15 years in contact with the ground without any chemical protection. The sapwood is prone to blue stain.

Resistance to Impregnation
The heartwood is reported to have moderate response to preservative penetration, but the sapwood is reported to be highly permeable.

Abnormal Wood Tissue
Compression wood is reported to be common.

Cutting Resistance
The wood has low resistance to sawing although cutters may be gummed up because of high resin content.

Planing properties are reported to be generally good.

The wood turns well, but resin may gum up cutters.

Moulding characteristics are reported to be generally good.

The material is reported to respond well to boring.

Routing & Recessing
Routing qualities are reported to be generally good.

The wood is reported to respond well to ordinary tools in mortising.

The material has good carving properties.

The timber is reported to have satisfactory gluing properties.

The wood is reported to take nails well.

Screwing properties are rated as good.

Sanding qualities are reported to be generally good.

Response to Hand Tools
The wood responds well to hand tools.

Strength Properties
The species has high bending strength in the air-dry condition (about 12 percent moisture content). Maximum crushing strength, or compression parallel to grain in the air-dry condition, is also in the high range. It is fairly hard, resisting wear, denting, and marring fairly well. The wood is heavy and dense.

Reference Sources

Numerical Data Source
Wangaard, F.F., and A.F. Muschler. 1952. Tropical Woods - Properties and Uses of Tropical Woods, Volume III, No. 98. School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Desch, H. E. 1957. Manual of Malayan Timbers. Malayan Forest Records, 28(30):315-318

Limaye, V.D. and B.R. Sen. 1956. Weights and Specific Gravities of Indian Woods. Indian Forest Records (New Series). Timber Mechanics. Volume 1 No. 4. Manager of Publications (Publisher), Delhi.

Lavers, G. M. 1966. The Strength Properties of Timbers. Forest Products Research Bulletin, No. 50. Ministry of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Descriptive Data Source
Lincoln, W.A. 1986. World Woods in Color. Linden Publishing Co. Ltd., Fresno, California.

Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 607, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

Mirov, N.T. 1967. The Genus PINUS. The Ronald Press Company, New York. LCC Card No. 67-14783.

Keating, W.G. And E. Bolza. 1982. Characteristics, Properties and Uses of Timbers, Volume 1 - South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.

Bolza, E. and N.H. Kloot. 1972. The Mechanical Properties of 56 Fijian Timbers. Division of Forest Products Technological Paper No. 62, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Melbourne, Australia.

Kloot, N. H. and E. Bolza. 1961. Properties of Timbers Imported into Australia. Technological Paper No. 12. Division of Forest Products, Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, Australia.

ITTO. 1986. Tropical Timber Atlas, Volume 1 - Africa. International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT), 45bis, Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex, France.

Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois, E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry Kiln Schedules for Commercial Hardwoods - Temperate and Tropical. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin.

WCMC. 1992. Conservation Status Listing - Trees and Timbers of the World. World Conservation Monitoring Center-Plants Programme, Cambridge, CB3 ODL, United Kingdom.

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The Magellan Group, Ltd.
The Bayside Building
20301 Bond Road, Suite 110
Poulsbo, WA 98370

Phone: 360-779-3275
Fax: 360-779-3918